If you require a certain number of backups to be retained, you can set the retention policy based on the redundancy option. This option requires that a specified number of backups be cataloged before any backup is identified as obsolete. The default retention policy has a redundancy of 1, which means that only one backup of a file must exist at any given time. A backup is deemed obsolete when a more recent version of the same file has been backed up. For example, you can use the following command to configure a redundancy recovery policy of 2:


You query V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY view and consistently receive an OPTIMAL_LOGFILE_SIZE value that is greater than the size of your smallest online redo log file. The OPTIMAL_LOGFILE_SIZE column of the V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY view can be used to determine the appropriate size for all of the online redo log files in your database. If the value of the OPTIMAL_LOGFILE_SIZE column is greater than the size of your smallest online redo log file, you should change the size of all online redo log files to be at least this value. In addition, the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET initialization parameter simplifies the configuration of recovery time from instance or system failure. After adjusting the size of your online redo log files, you may be able to adjust the value of this initialization parameter for better performance. This is done by rerunning the MTTR advisor after changing the size of your online redo log file to achieve more optimal results. However, running the MTTR advisor is not the best option in this situation for improving instance recovery performance.


Starting in Oracle Database 12c, the multithreaded Oracle model enables specific Oracle processes to execute as operating system threads in separate address spaces. Setting up an Oracle database instance for using multi-process multi-thread architecture is done by starting up the Oracle database instance with the THREADED_EXECUTION initialization parameter set to TRUE.

The multi-process multi-thread model requires a password file for SYSDBA authentication while starting the database instance. Without using the SYS password

an  ORA-1031: insufficient privileges error will be triggered on startup.

When the THREADED_EXECUTION parameter is set to TRUE, you must set the DEDICATED_THROUGH_BROKER_LISTENER parameter to ON in your listener.ora file.

When that parameter is set, the listener knows that it should not spawn an OS process when a connect request is received; instead, it passes the request to the database so that a database thread is spawned and answers the connection.




Oracle Groundbreakers EMEA 2021 
Michigan Oracle Users Summit 2021 

Oracle Machine Learning for R (OML4R) is an R API that makes the open-source R statistical programming language and environment ready for enterprise and big data. Designed for significant data problems, OML4R integrates R with Oracle Database.
R users can run R commands and scripts for statistical and graphical analyses on data stored in the Oracle Database. In addition, they can develop, refine and deploy R scripts that leverage the parallelism and scalability of the database to automate data analysis.

For more information, see:

The paper below describes an automated system that generates, selects, verifies, and maintains materialized views in the Oracle RDBMS; it presents a novel technique, called the extended covering subexpression algorithm, for the automated generation of materialized views. An extensive set of experiments is described that demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of this approach. This system has been fully implemented and will be deployed on the Oracle Autonomous Database on the Cloud.

For more information see

V$TRANSACTION lists the active transactions in the system.

(i) The following columns together point to a transaction. (i.e.) The combination of the following should give a unique transaction id for that database.

XIDUSN – Undo segment number
XIDSLOT – NUMBER Slot number
XIDSQN – NUMBER Sequence number

(ii) The following columns explain the number of undo blocks / undo records used per transaction.
USED_UBLK – Number of undo blocks used
USED_UREC – Number of undo records used

In the case of transaction rollback, the above columns will estimate the number of undo blocks that need to be rolled back.

The number of undo records and undo blocks (USED_UREC and USED_UBLK) decreases while the transaction rolls back. When they reach 0, the transaction disappears from v$transaction.

The following query can be used to monitor the transaction rollback.

(iii) The STATUS following column explains the status of a transaction.

ACTIVE – Explains the transaction is active.

Before performing a normal/transactional shutdown, YOU can check this view to understand any ACTIVE transactions.


You can import database objects that are enabled for the IM column store using the TRANSFORM=INMEMORY:y option of the ‘impdp’ command. With this option, Data Pump keeps the IM column store clause for all objects that have one. When the TRANSFORM=INMEMORY:n option is specified, Data Pump drops the IM column store clause from all objects that have one.

You can also use the TRANSFORM=INMEMORY_CLAUSE:string option to override the IM column store clause for a database object in the dump file during import. For example, you can use this option to change the IM column store compression for a database object being imported.



Note the \ characters are necessary to “escape” the double quotes so they are not stripped by the OS.



Oracle Database In-Memory Option (DBIM) Basics and Interaction with Data Warehousing Features (Doc ID 1903683.1)

After applying DB RU or DB RUR, you may notice that the Block Change Tracking (BCT) file is getting created of a size that is not in line with the database size.
Oracle recommends that you apply interim one-off Patch 33185773 to correct this problem(s) in the RU/RURs indicated above.
Note the fix for this issue has been included in the Oct2021 quarterly RU/RURs.

For all offerings using Oracle Database 19c or later, if you are not licensed for Oracle Multitenant, then you may have up to 3 user-created PDBs in a given container database at any time. For all offerings using Oracle Database 12.1 through 18c, if you are not licensed for Oracle Multitenant, then the container database architecture is available in single-tenant mode, that is, with one user-created PDB, one user-created application root, and one user-created proxy PDB.

EE: Extra cost option; if you are licensed for Oracle Multitenant, then you can create up to 252 PDBs.

ODA and Exa: Extra cost option; if you are licensed for Oracle Multitenant, then you can create up to 4096 PDBs.

ExaCS/CC, DBCS EE-HP, and DBCS EE-EP: Included option; you can create up to 4096 PDBs.